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5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), also known as acadasine, is a natural analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP). It stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase that mediates energy homeostasis and metabolism. Further, it inhibits adenosine deaminase and increases the level of adenosine and ATP within the cell.
It was first used in 1980 to preserve the blood flow rate to the heart during surgery. AICAR has also been shown to boost athletic performance and is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Further, it regulates insulin receptors, has anti-cancer properties and inhibits platelet function. AICAR hasn’t been approved by the FDA yet. At Element Sarms, AICAR for sale is restricted to educational purposes.
IUPAC Name:5-amino-1-[3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]imidazole-4-carboxamideSynonyms: MFCD00869751, 37642-57-2Molecular Formula: C9H14N4O5Molecular Weight: 258.23 g/molCAS Number: 37642-57-2PubChem CID: 2669340
Activation of AMPK, whether through exercise or AICAR, promotes a healthier metabolic state and may also have the potential to treat obesity .
One study was conducted to examine the effect of AICAR on high-fat diet-induced pathophysiology in mice. Wild-type mice and mice with no Adipoq gene were fed a standard fat diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. They were also treated with AICAR three times/week from weeks 4–12. The researchers found that AICAR attenuated adipocyte inflammation, hepatic stenosis and kidney disease independently of adiponectin. Furthermore, it also reduced TNF-alpha production and promoted the M1 to M2 macrophage phenotype switch in tissue explant from obese human patients. This data indicates that AICAR may have the potential to treat obesity-induced complications in humans .
AICAR has been shown to positively impact diabetes. It reduces inflammation in adipocytes which is linked to insulin resistance. Thus, reducing inflammation in these tissues improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity without changing body weight . One study in diabetic male patients found that AICAR administration reduced hepatic glucose output and lowered blood glucose concentrations .
The beneficial effects of exercise on diabetes are thought to be caused by the activation of AMPK, and both exercise and AICAR similarly influence diabetes. In a study, rats with pre-diabetic conditions were subjected to either daily treadmill running or treated with AICAR. The result found that both groups exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and didn’t develop hyperglycemia as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the morphology of pancreatic beta cells was normal in the exercise and AICAR-treated group, suggesting that AMPK activation can preserve the function of beta cells .
Research shows that AICAR demonstrates antitumor activities for several types of cancer. One study was conducted to examine the effect of AICAR on prostate cancer. The results found that AICAR inhibited cell growth in cancer cells but the effect was not present in non-cancerous cells. Further, it induced apoptosis, inhibited cell migration induced by transforming growth factor and enhanced chemosensitivity to docetaxel. These findings suggest that AICAR has the potential to treat prostate cancer .
Similarly, another study found that AICAR inhibits lung cancer cell growth by inducing DNA damage and apoptosis. Further, it causes the degradation of mucin 1 that is overexpressed in lung cancer cells and downregulates the JAK signalling and JAK-MUC1-CT interaction .
Furthermore, one research showed that AICAR reduced osteosarcoma growth by increasing mitochondrial proliferation and apoptotic activity in cancer cells. It exhibited anti-cancer effects through AMPK-dependent peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)/mitochondrial pathway .
AICAR has shown potential in research related to heart diseases due to its effect on cellular energy regulation. Further, it has anti-inflammatory effects and majority of the heart diseases are thought to be caused by inflammation.
In one study, mice were injected with AICAR and exposed to occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion for up to 30 days. AMPK activation by AICAR led to the mobilization of specific cells, differentiation into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and enhanced collagen deposition in the injury site. This resulted in reduced negative changes in heart structure and function after heart attack (MI), demonstrating the unique role of AMPK in scar formation following MI .
Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic drug that causes severe heart-related side effects leading to heart failure. A study was conducted to explore whether activating AMPK using AICAR could protect against DOX-induced heart failure in rats. Results found that AICAR improved heart function by normalizing energy sources, preventing lipid imbalance, enhancing mitochondrial function, and preserving cardiac mass. These findings suggest that AICAR has the potential to act as a cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced heart failure .
AICAR, a naturally occurring analog of AMP, has the ability to activate the AMPK pathway that regulates energy homeostasis and metabolism. Research has shown that AICAR might improve obesity-related complications and insulin sensitivity. Further, it exhibits anticancer and cardioprotective effects. It is a research chemical that has not been approved by FDA yet. At Element Sarms, AICAR purchase is solely available for research and educational purposes. Only buy AICAR if you are a qualified researcher.
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The statements made within this website have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. The statements and the products of this company are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.