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Nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an oxidized form of NADH, is found in all living organisms. It’s an integral part of the electron transport system that carries electrons in various biochemical pathways, thus shuttling energy within and outside the cell. NAD+ is involved in metabolism, DNA repair, and energy production and influences various processes in the body.
Sir Arthur Hardin and William John Young first discovered NAD+ in 1906. NAD+ levels decline with advancing age. NAD+ replenishment therapy might be helpful in treating old age-related problems. It’s not approved by FDA yet. On our website, NAD+ for sale is only available for research and educational purposes.
Synonym: Nadide, Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotideMolecular Formula: C21H28N7O14P2+Molecular Weight: 664.4 g/molCAS Number: 53-84-9PubChem CID: 5893
Research shows that NAD+ levels decrease with age in various tissues, including the liver, heart, brain, lungs, spleen, skin and extracellular fluids. Further, its age-dependent decrease is reported in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), mice .
Nicotine monoamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a precursor of NAD+. NMN, synthesised from niacinamide, is converted into nicotine adenine dinucleotide by NMN adenyl transferases. Research shows that NMN administration in rodents increases the levels of NAD+ in various tissues, including pancreas, heart, skeletal muscle, eyes, liver, adipose tissue and blood vessels. Further, intraperitoneal injection of NMN has been shown to improve NAD+ levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. It has also been shown to improve functional age-related decline, such as lipid metabolism, bone density, energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity .
Age-related decline is also associated with a decrease in the activity of mitochondria. It changes the activity of stem cells, reduces the rate of healing and causes inflammation . Research on animal models shows that NAD administration can restore mitochondrial function .
Research shows that NAD+ positively impacts muscle health and performance. This has to do with its ability to improve mitochondrial function which supplies energy in the form of ATP to muscles. Research on mouse models shows that NMN administration for 1 week restored the oxidative phosphorylation activity and other markers of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscles .
Studies show that exercise has the same effect on muscle age-related decline as NAD+. It improves the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma Co-activator 1-alpha, which is involved in mitochondrial dysfunction . Furthermore, one cross-sectional study found low levels of NAD+ in older adults, and the effect was more pronounced in physically impaired individuals. However, the participants who were exercise-trained had NAD+ levels comparable to those found in younger individuals .
Research shows that NAD+ levels decline in hypertension and obesity, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). NAD+ administration has been shown to improve CVD. One study in a rat model found that exogenous administration of NAD+ can significantly reduce myocardial infarct induced by ischemic injury. Further, it suggested that the mechanism behind this effect might be due to the decreased apoptotic damage and enhanced oxidative capacity .
Increased NAD+ biosynthesis or reduction in its catabolism has been shown to improve diabetic cardiomyopathy . In one study, elevated NAD+ levels by oral supplementation of its precursor, nicotinamide, improved diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, it reduced blood pressure and decreased the risk of cardiac mortality, indicating its potential use for diastolic dysfunction in patients with heart failure preserved ejection fraction .
NAD+ is an essential cofactor for energy production and cell survival. It has been shown to have neuroprotective effects through its ability to improve mitochondrial function and antioxidant properties. It suppresses the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is involved in causing damage associated with inflammation and diseases. Considering its beneficial properties, NAD+ might be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
One study was conducted to see the effects of NAD+ in ischemic injury. Researchers induced ischemic injury by oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat primary neuronal cultures. Replenishment of NAD+ reduced cell death and DNA damage. Further, it restored the DNA repair activity through the BER pathway .
Drugs and alcohol addiction have a negative effect on the levels of NAD+ that cause mood changes. Further, it can impair metabolism, promote oxidative stress and disrupt circadian rhythm. Research suggests that NAD+ metabolism affects signaling pathways involved in the neurobiology of addiction. NAD+ supplementation is associated with reduced addiction behavior and withdrawal symptoms .
NAD+ (nicotine adenine dinucleotide) is an important cofactor for cell survival, energy production and DNA repair. NAD+ declines with age and its supplementation might attenuate problems associated with aging. Currently, it's not approved by FDA and NAD+ purchase is limited to educational and research institutions. Only buy NAD+ if you are a keen researcher looking to explore its therapeutic potential.
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The statements made within this website have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. The statements and the products of this company are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.